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One effect of casino gaming on reservations is that

one effect of casino gaming on reservations is that

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Occupationsingamingare predictedtobe among the fastest growing U. The growth of the casino employment market has spurred a related increase in vocational and professional training for casino workers.

The University of Nevada, Las Vegas , only 1. Students pursuing a degree in hospitality and tourism management at the University of Massachusetts can specialize in casino management.

Central Michigan University, which is located near the Soaring Eagle Casino and Resort operated by the Saginaw Chippewa Tribe, offers a business degree in gaming and entertainment management, including course-work in the protection of casino table games, gaming regulations and control, the mathematics of casino games, and the sociology of gambling.

When it opened in , it was the first gaming school in the country affiliated with a community college. According to the AGA, in State of the States , commercial casinos employed , people in A large proportion of this increase was due to the opening of new racetrack casinos in Florida and Pennsylvania.

Employment at commercial casinos grew rapidly during the s, then stagnated overall between and , before rising in and then falling again in Casino employment rose dramatically in Missouri Even though employment numbers fell and then rose again between and , commercial casino wages rose steadily.

About , of those jobs were at tribal casinos; the other jobs were at ancillary facilities such as restaurants and hotels. Another ninety thousand jobs were attributed to the indirect effects of tribal casinos — for example, businesses at which casino workers spent their wages.

The NIGA estimates that tribal casinos were indirectly responsible for , other jobs by purchasing goods and services from businesses around the country.

Capital construction projects e. In total, the NIGA credits tribal gaming for the employment of , people during In some cases the percentages reflected the fact that several tribes had fewer members than employees.

Historically, employees at tribal casinos have not been covered by the federal labor laws that protect workers at commercial casinos.

As sovereign entities, tribes were considered excluded from Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of and Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of , which prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, physical impairment, and other criteria.

In addition, the National Labor Relations Act exempts government entities from the requirement that they allow employees to form unions. Tribes, having been ruled to be sovereign governments by both the National Labor Relations Board NLRB and a federal court, operated under their own laws and blocked unions if they chose to do so.

However, some court cases have held that Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the Fair Labor Standards Act , and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act do apply to tribal businesses conducted on reservations.

The election was held on November 24, , and most employees voted in favor of the union. Employer appeals were overruled by the NLRB ,http: The union was officially certified on June 30, http: No destination better represents the marriage between gambling and tourism than Las Vegas.

It has had its ups and downs, however. In the early s the city experienced a steep decline in revenues because of competition from legal gambling on riverboats and tribal casinos in other states.

To counteract this development, the city began a drive to shift its focus from an adult playground to a family destination. Theme hotels became the big draw.

Adult entertainment along the Strip, such as topless shows, gave way to magic shows, circus events, and carnival rides.

The result was a huge increase in visitors. However, children distracted their parents from gambling. Casino owners noticed that the changes did not bring in more gambling revenue, so during the late s the city began to change its image again.

Adult entertainment made a comeback along the Strip: MGM Grand shut down its family theme park in The resurgence of travel it slowed for two years after the September 11, , terrorist attacks may have been another factor.

Las Vegas tourism faces one particular future challenge: It relies heavily on visitors from California, so the advent of tribal gaming in California could create stiff competition.

Tourism in Atlantic City increased following the introduction of casino gambling, but not as fast or as much as many had hoped. From the s to the s Atlantic City was a major tourist destination, particularly for people living in the Northeast.

During the s and s the town fell into economic depression as tourists ventured farther south to beaches in Florida and the Caribbean.

Casino gambling was legalized in in the hopes that the city would recapture its former glory and rival Las Vegas as a tourist destination.

Progress was slow through the s and early s. Even though visitors began to go to Atlantic City, they mostly arrived by bus or car and stayed only for a day or two.

Vacant lots, buildings in disrepair, and housing projects surrounded the casinos. The overall atmosphere was not particularly appealing to vacationers or convention-goers.

In the late s initiatives by the CRDA and other groups began to pay off. Hundreds of new homes were built, and commercial businesses were established.

One of the largest convention centers in the country it has 31 acres [ Regardless, city and casino officials still see three factors that limit tourism growth in Atlantic City: Restrictions on smoking on the casino floor, which went into effect in , also worry officials.

When gambling was legalized in Nevada in , the law kept corporations out of the casino business by requiring that every shareholder obtain a gaming license.

This law, which was designed to safeguard the integrity of the casinos, unintentionally gave organized crime a huge advantage. The nation was in the midst of the Great Depression — , and building a flashy casino-hotel was expensive.

Few legitimate businessmen had the cash to finance a casino, and banks were reluctant to loan money for what they saw as a poor investment.

Organized crime groups had made fortunes selling bootleg liquor during Prohibition — , so they were able to make the capital investments needed to build and operate lavish casino-hotels that attracted visitors.

The marriage between casinos and organized crime in Nevada lasted for decades but was eventually ended by gaming officials and law enforcement.

In the twenty-first century, there is no strong evidence of organized crime activity in the casino industry. Regulatory agencies keep a watchful eye on casinos to make sure mobsters and their associates do not gain a new foothold.

Casinos keep an equally watchful eye on their patrons and employees. The casino floor is constantly monitored by a host of security guards and cameras.

Observers watch dealers and patrons at the gaming tables and all money-counting areas. Some casinos use high-tech facial recognition programs to scan incoming patrons and quickly identify any known felons or other undesirables.

Even though the industry does not release data on crimes committed by casino employees, analysts believe employee theft and embezzlement account for millions of dollars in losses each year.

Vice crimes, particularly prostitution, as well as weapons crimes also occur. Details of the type of crimes found around casinos are illustrated by the Missouri Gaming Commission, in Annual Report to the General Assembly: Fiscal Year , http: Commission agents filed 1, charges between July and June This total included charges for acts committed at the casinos as well as arrests made for criminal activities that did not occur on casino property.

Over three hundred people were charged with violating gambling laws, and people were charged with stealing. The amount of crime in a community with a casino has a direct relationship to the maturity of the casino, according to Earl L.

Grinols and David B. The researchers collected crime data from all 3, counties in the United States with and without casinos between and Their analysis shows that when a casino first opened in a county, crime changed very little, but slowly rose and then grew steadily in subsequent years.

Even though increased employment and expanded law enforcement might reduce crime initially, over time these effects were overtaken by factors related to casinos.

The possible link between casino gambling and suicide rates has been the subject of much investigation.

For example, in December David P. Welty, and Marisa M. However, five years later Richard McCleary et al.

Even though increased suicide rates were noted in Atlantic County, New Jersey, and Harrison County, Mississippi, after the advent of gambling, the increases were not considered statistically significant.

Chrystal Mansley, and Kylie Thygesen find that suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more likely among pathological gamblers.

However, the history of suicidal thoughts generally preceded problem gambling behavior by an average of more than ten years.

The researchers conclude that previous mental health disorders, such as clinical depression, put individuals more at risk for both suicide and gambling problems.

In other words, gambling itself does not cause suicide attempts. Nevada, a state in which gambling is widely practiced, had the third-highest suicide rate in the nation in This was nearly twice the national average of Loneliness and despair are more likely to overwhelm such people than those who have an emotional safety net in place.

In general, suicide rates are higher in the western states than in any other region. Even Utah, which allows no legal gambling, had the seventeenth-highest suicide rate in , with a rate of fourteen suicides per one hundred thousand population.

Establishing a definitive link between gambling habits and bankruptcy is difficult. The researchers compare bankruptcy-filing rates during for 3, counties.

They find that the counties in which casinos operated had a bankruptcy rate that was Ernest Goss and Edward A. According to their analysis, those counties actually saw a drop in bankruptcies when the casinos first opened.

However, after a casino was open for nine years bankruptcies trended the other way. Eventually, the bankruptcy rate in a county with a casino was 2.

Many casinos operate self-exclusion programs in which people can voluntarily ban themselves from casinos. A number of states also offer self-exclusion programs for all casinos within their borders.

The Missouri Gaming Commission requires that the. The casinos are not responsible for barring listed people from the casinos, but anyone listed is to be arrested for trespassing if he or she violates the ban and is discovered in a casino.

However, self-excluded people can enter the casino for employment purposes. Programs in other states are similar. If a self-excluded person is discovered in an Illinois casino, his or her chips and tokens are taken away and their value is donated to charity.

The Illinois self-exclusion program runs for a minimum of five years. After that time, people can be removed from the program if they provide written documentation from a licensed mental health professional that they are no longer problem gamblers.

Self-exclusion in Michigan is permanent; a person who chooses to be on the Disassociated Persons List is banned for life from Detroit casinos.

The commission maintains a list of those who have joined the program and shares the list with the casinos.

Besides casinos and states, companies that provide the ATMs and cash-advance services for casinos have put self-exclusion programs into place. For example, Global Payments provides self-exclusion and even self-limit services for people with gambling problems.

Those who put their names on the self-exclusion list are denied money or cash advances, whereas the self-limit program puts a limit on how much money patrons can withdraw in a specified period.

All the states operate gambling hotlines that either refer callers to other groups for help or provide counseling over the phone. Between its inception and the end of the hotline had received nearly twenty thousand calls.

Missouri also offers free treatment to residents suffering from problem gambling and to their families. The program is administered by the Department of Mental Health through a network of private mental health providers who have been certified as compulsive-gambling counselors.

Bock notes that in , people received free treatment for gambling addiction through this program. Four Years of Evidence October 25, , http: These actions include the proper training of employees and the promotion of responsible gambling on company Web sites and through brochures and signs posted at the casinos.

AGA members also agree to provide opportunities for patrons to self-exclude themselves from casino play. The legal gambling age in all commercial casinos in the United States is twenty-one; in tribal casinos it varies from eighteen to twenty-one.

The AGA indicates in State of the States that participants were asked in who they thought bore the most responsibility for addressing the problem of underage gambling in the United States.

The so-called slots-for-tots regulation is supposed to prevent the introduction of slot machines displaying cartoon characters that might appeal to children.

Most states prohibit the passage of minors through the gambling area. Gaming can be extremely successful because it stimulates the economy , increases tourism to reservations, reduces unemployment , raises incomes, and increases tribal independence while reducing dependence upon welfare.

Native American gaming has created over , jobs in the United States. Revenues, by law, must go toward improving reservation communities.

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act requires that revenues go toward: For instance, tribes often build casino -related facilities that draw visitors such as hotels, conference centers, entertainment venues, golf courses , and RV parks.

Once a reservation has established a strong economic foundation, it can draw in businesses that are unrelated to gaming. A common trend is that casinos stimulate the economy, and other business sustain it.

For instance, the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians built in a water bottling plant on the reservation and, along with three other tribes, invested in a hotel in Washington, D.

The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska are involved in a number of businesses; some of which are Internet media, home manufacturing, used autos, and gas stations.

In addition to involvement in private corporations, Native nations have enough sustainability to bolster government programs. Some of these projects include, but are not limited to: Tribes sometimes distribute funds on a per capita basis in order to directly benefit its citizens.

Punishments such as these provide an incentive for morality as well as financial assistance from the per caps themselves. States also benefit from Native American gaming enterprises.

States cannot tax reservations, but they can, under IGRA, negotiate a compact and demand compact payments. It is required by law for a tribe to agree to a state compact if they request one, but the IGRA says nothing about local governments.

However, many tribes do negotiate with local governments. They place a strain on traffic and emergency services, and it is not uncommon for a tribe to compensate for that.

With gaming profits, the Creek Nation of Oklahoma has built its own hospital staffed by Native American doctors and nurses. Many tribes work toward securing hope for the future by improving schools.

There have been many past attempts to revitalize Native American economies, but most of them have failed. Two of the more successful ventures, besides gaming, include selling gasoline and cigarettes for a much lower price than can be found off the reservation.

Tribes are able to sell cheaper goods because there is no state tax. Lower prices draw in non-Natives from off-reservation sites, and tribes are able to earn a considerable profit.

Smokeshops account for most of this substantial increase. Less effective efforts by the Seminole Nation to boost the economy include cattle raising, craft selling, and alligator wrestling.

However, cattle operations are not overwhelmingly successful because they have been known to benefit the individual rather than the tribe.

In addition, cattle operations led to government dependency and debt. Another economic endeavor is craft sales.

Some individuals create traditional Seminole crafts and sell them, but this market does not leave a huge impact on the tribal economy. Instead, it benefits the individual as a supplementary income.

Alligator wrestling is yet another moneymaker but is not relied upon. Alligator wrestling originated in the s and became synonymous with Seminole culture.

It has been denigrated as exploitative, though, and is quite risky. Consequently, alligator wrestling has become less prevalent with the growing popularity of Native American gaming.

If a Native American casino is unsuccessful, its failure is often linked to its geographic location. The size of a tribe is usually insignificant.

This argument follows the logic of a free market economy. Tribes with a strong economic base find it easier to draw in new businesses and consumers.

Tribes in remote locations suffer because they lack a consumer base to support new and existing businesses. In contrast, the Sioux Nation , a very large nation, has struggled to achieve success with gaming enterprises.

Regardless of its thousands of members and approximately 12 gambling halls, the Sioux Nation is unable to benefit from gaming enterprises because it is too isolated from potential customers.

Another example is found in San Diego County. Far away from other civilization and in close proximity to each other, the tribes concluded their chances of an overwhelming success were slim.

The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation , the second largest reservation in the United States, suffers from extreme poverty.

It is the poorest county in the United States and has attempted to revitalize its economy through the gambling industry.

However, these attempts have failed.

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One Effect Of Casino Gaming On Reservations Is That Video

Effects of Casinos on Unity among American Indian tribes{/ITEM}

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